What Are The Nine Power Problems?

In an ideal world, your wall socket would provide an infinite stream of perfect power, at constant voltage and cycling exactly the same number of time per second. Don’t count on it.
  1. Power failure. When a superhero loses his ability to fly or a total loss of utility power.
  2. Power sag. Post-lunch sleepiness or short-term low voltage.
  3. Power surge (spike). Rush of energy following a double shot of espresso or short-term high voltage more than 110 percent of normal.
  4. Under-voltage (brownout). When your amp’s too wimpy to handle the bass line or reduced line voltage for an extended period of a few minutes to a few days. Often happens during the summer months when everyone is cranking up their air conditioners.
  5. Over-voltage. Inhuman cheerfulness exuded by aerobics instructors or increased line voltage for an extended period of a few minutes to a few days.
  6. Electrical line noise. Excuse you use to get off the phone quickly or a high power frequency power wave caused by radio frequency interference (RFI) or electromagnetic interference (EMI).
  7. Frequency variation. Fluctuation in how often you do laundry from week to week or a loss of stability in the power supply’s normal frequency of 50 or 60 Hz.
  8. Switching transient. Breaking up with your significant other only to get back together every six months or instantaneous under-voltage in the range of nanoseconds.
  9. Harmonic distortion. “Music” blaring from your nephew’s headphones or the distortion of the normal power wave, generally transmitted by unequal loads.